Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) results when gastric acid, food, and liquid from the stomach chronically flow up into the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach).
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GERD is caused by a weakness or transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) muscle. The LES sits at the juncture between the esophagus and the stomach. When you eat, food and liquid travel down the esophagus to the stomach. Once they arrive, the resting tone of the LES helps keep stomach contents from refluxing or moving backward into the esophagus. But when the LES is weakened, it does not work properly. Stomach contents may reflux into the esophagus, which can cause the burning sensation in the chest known as heartburn.
While most Americans suffer from heartburn at one time or another, millions Americans suffer from chronic GERD.
Possible long-term complications of GERD include esophagitis,
Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal narrowing, and
cancer of the esophagus.